A collection of genomics, functional genomics, and genetics studies and links to their resulting datasets. This resource describes project scope, material, and objectives and provides a mechanism to retrieve datasets that are often difficult to find due to inconsistent annotation, multiple independent submissions, and the varied nature of diverse data types which are often stored in different databases.


A resource under development to provide a public, tracked record of reported relationships among human variation and observed health status. ClinVar has a projected launch date for late 2011. 

The dbVar database has been developed to archive information associated with large scale genomic variation, including large insertions, deletions, translocations and inversions. In addition to archiving variation discovery, dbVar also stores associations of defined variants with phenotype information.

An archive and distribution center for the description and results of studies which investigate the interaction of genotype and phenotype. These studies include genome-wide association (GWAS), medical resequencing, molecular diagnostic assays, as well as association between genotype and non-clinical traits. 

Database of Major Histocompatibility Complex (dbMHC)

An open, publicly accessible platform where the HLA community can submit, edit, view, and exchange data related to the human major histocompatibility complex.  It consists of an interactive Alignment Viewer for HLA and related genes, an MHC microsatellite database, a sequence interpretation site for Sequencing Based Typing (SBT), and a Primer/Probe database.

Includes single nucleotide variations, microsatellites, and small-scale insertions and deletions. dbSNP contains population-specific frequency and genotype data, experimental conditions, molecular context, and mapping information for both neutral variations and clinical mutations.

Genetic Testing Registry (GTR)

A voluntary registry of genetic tests and laboratories, with detailed information about the tests such as what is measured and analytic and clinical validity.  GTR also is a nexus for information about genetic conditions and provides context-specific links to a variety of resources, including practice guidelines, published literature, and genetic data/information. The initial scope of GTR includes single gene tests for Mendelian disorders, as well as arrays, panels and pharmacogenetic tests.



Downloadable data for SNP.

FTP: dbGAP Open-Access Data

Open-access data generally include summaries of genotype/phenotype association studies, descriptions of the measured variables, and study documents, such as the protocol and questionnaires. Access to individual-level data, including phenotypic data tables and genotypes, requires varying levels of authorization.

FTP: dbMHC Data

This site contains data in separate directories for the various projects and resources within the database of human major histocompatibility (dbMHC).


BioProject Submission

An online form that provides an interface for researchers, consortia and organizations to register their BioProjects. This serves as the starting point for the submission of genomic and genetic data for the study. The data does not need to be submitted at the time of BioProject registration.

Database of Major Histocompatibility Complex (dbMHC) Microsatellite Markers Submission Template

Guidelines and template for submitting MHC region microsatellite data to dbMHC.

The SNP database tools page provides links to the general submission guidelines and to the submission handle request. The page has also two specific links for single- or batch submissions of the human variation data using Human Genome Variation Society nomenclature.

Submission Portal

A single entry point for submitters to link to and find information about all of the data submission processes at NCBI. Currently, this serves as an interface for the registration of BioProjects and BioSamples and submission of data for WGS and GTR. Future additions to this site are planned.


1000 Genomes Browser

An interactive graphical viewer that allows users to explore variant calls, genotype calls and supporting evidence (such as aligned sequence reads) that have been produced by the 1000 Genomes Project.


A public domain quality assurance software package that facilitates the assessment of multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiles based on laboratory-specific protocols. OSIRIS evaluates the raw electrophoresis data using an independently derived mathematically-based sizing algorithm. It offers two new peak quality measures - fit level and sizing residual. It can be customized to accommodate laboratory-specific signatures such as background noise settings, customized naming conventions and additional internal laboratory controls.

Phenotype-Genotype Integrator (PheGenI)

Supports finding human phenotype/genotype relationships with queries by phenotype, chromosome location, gene, and SNP identifiers. Currently includes information from dbGaP, the NHGRI GWAS Catalog, and GTeX. Displays results on the genome, on sequence, or in tables for download.

SNP Database Specialized Search Tools

A variety of tools are available for searching the SNP database, allowing search by genotype, method, population, submitter, markers and sequence similarity using BLAST. These are linked under ""Search"" on the left side bar of the dbSNP main page.

Variation Reporter

A tool designed to search for and report human sequence variation data from dbSNP and dbVar. Individual variations or batch files can be submitted in HGVS, GVF or BED formats. Related information will be retrieved and reported in a downloadable table containing variation identifiers, nucleotide and cytogenetic band locations on various genomic assemblies, allele type and minor allele frequencies, predicted functional consequences (missense, nonsense, frameshift, splice site, etc.), reported clinical significance, and relevant citations.

Viral Genotyping Tool

This tool helps identify the genotype of a viral sequence. A window is slid along the query sequence and each window is compared by BLAST to each of the reference sequences for a particular virus.