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Reprod Toxicol. 2001 Jul-Aug;15(4):413-20.

Developmental toxicity evaluation of 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid in Sprague Dawley (CD) rats.

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  • 1Center for Life Sciences and Toxicology, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194, USA.


1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), proposed as a formaldehyde substitute in the treatment of permanent press fabrics, was evaluated for developmental toxicity. Timed-mated CD rats (25 per group) received BTCA 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day or vehicle (deionized/distilled water) by gavage on gestational days (gd) 6 through 19. Maternal feed and water consumption, body weight, and clinical signs were monitored throughout gestation. At termination (gd 20), confirmed-pregnant females (21 to 25 per group) were evaluated for clinical status and gestational outcome; live fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal malformations. One maternal death, reduced body weight, and reduced weight gain were noted at the high dose; confirmed pregnancy rates were 84 to 100% for each group. There were no treatment-related effects on fetal growth, survival, or morphologic development. The maternal toxicity NOAEL and LOAEL are 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day, respectively. The developmental toxicity NOAEL is > or = 1000 mg/kg/day, and the LOAEL was not established in this study.

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