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Diabetes Care. 2010 Jun;33(6):1206-12. doi: 10.2337/dc09-1040.

Prediction of type 1 diabetes in the general population.

Author information

  • 1Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. mikael.knip@hus.fi

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the utility of GAD antibodies (GADAs) and islet antigen-2 antibodies (IA-2As) in prediction of type 1 diabetes over 27 years in the general population and to assess the 6-year rates of seroconversion.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

A total of 3,475 nondiabetic subjects aged 3-18 years were sampled in 1980, and 2,375 subjects (68.3%) were resampled in 1986. All subjects were observed for development of diabetes to the end of 2007. GADAs and IA-2As were analyzed in all samples obtained in 1980 and 1986.

RESULTS:

A total of 34 individuals (1.0%; 9 developed diabetes) initially had GADAs and 22 (0.6%; 9 developed diabetes) IA-2As. Seven subjects (0.2%) tested positive for both autoantibodies. The positive seroconversion rate over 6 years was 0.4% for GADAs and 0.2% for IA-2As, while the inverse seroconversion rates were 33 and 57%, respectively. Eighteen subjects (0.5%) developed type 1 diabetes after a median pre-diabetic period of 8.6 years (range 0.9-20.3). Initial positivity for GADAs and/or IA-2As had a sensitivity of 61% (95% CI 36-83) for type 1 diabetes. Combined positivity for GADAs and IA-2As had both a specificity and a positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI 59-100).

CONCLUSIONS:

One-time screening for GADAs and IA-2As in the general childhood population in Finland would identify approximately 60% of those individuals who will develop type 1 diabetes over the next 27 years, and those subjects who have both autoantibodies carry an extremely high risk for diabetes. Both positive and inverse seroconversions do occur over time reflecting a dynamic process of beta-cell autoimmunity.

PMID:
20508230
PMCID:
PMC2875424
DOI:
10.2337/dc09-1040
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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