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Neurology. 2007 Jan 30;68(5):350-5.

Frequency of and risk factors for HIV dementia in an HIV clinic in sub-Saharan Africa.

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  • 1School of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.



To measure the frequency and associated risk factors of HIV dementia in an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda.


We systematically sampled 78 HIV-seropositive (HIV+) patients from an ambulatory HIV clinic. Participants underwent detailed sociodemographic, medical history, functional, neurologic, and neuropsychological evaluations. One hundred HIV-negative patients were recruited to provide normative data for the neuropsychological tests. A logistic regression model was constructed to determine risk factors associated with the diagnosis of HIV dementia.


Thirty-one percent (24 of 78) of the HIV+ patients had HIV dementia. Advanced age and low CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count (CD4 count) were the only variables identified as significant risk factors in the logistic regression model. Each additional 10 years of age conferred a greater than twofold risk of HIV dementia (OR 2.06, 95% CI: 1.05 to 4.07; p < 0.05). Reduced levels of CD4 count (100 cells/muL decrement) was associated with a 60% increase in the odds of having HIV dementia (OR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.33; p < 0.05).


HIV dementia is common in HIV-seropositive Ugandan individuals attending an AIDS clinic. It is more frequently associated with patients of advanced age and decreased CD4 count.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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